Interdisciplinary Scientific Journal

"The Complex Systems"(Rus)

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The Complex systems no. 1 (26) 2018

Basic researches
METHODS FOR THE GENERATION OF COHERENCE OF INDIVIDUAL WORLDSIN THE SMALL SOCIAL GROUP
Knyazeva H.N., Ryzhov V.A., Kharlamov A.A.
Annotation. The problems of constructing a world model of a human and of the reconciliation of meanings among members of a small social group in the process of their communication and joint activity are considered in the article from the system-theoretical, neurophysiological, social-psychological and communicative-activity points of view. The key point is how the coherence of meanings in the world models of group members correlates with the coherence of texts representing their subject areas. The world model, as well as the model of a subject area, consists of three components: linguistic and two multimodal (individual and socialized). The world model of each person is a unique construction and, despite some of its similarity to the models that the members of the corresponding social group are building, it requires constant synchronization, which is realized in the process of communication. In addition to the informational mechanism of synchronization according to key concepts of subject areas, there exists an intentional mechanism in the communication process, which is implemented through the personal characteristics of the subjects of communication. The mode of operation of these mechanisms is revealed by using the example of collective activity and the quality of communication literacy. Communication literacy of people, as shown in the article, depends significantly on the linguistic component, i.e. on the ability to work with texts in natural language. This means that each person should be able to write texts of high quality and to work with meanings as well as to understand the meanings contained in texts written by others. This is especially important in the context of widespread distribution of various network structures on IT and telecom platforms, from social and expert networks of “collective intelligence” to instant messaging networks.

Key words: world model, natural language, coherence of meanings, coherence of texts, small social group, self-organization, semantic gap, network structures, networks, participatory sense-making, complex systems, complexity, text, management, observer.

DYNAMICS BEACHES OF THE REGION IMERETI LOWLANDS-SURFACE IN THE AREA BETWEEN THE MZYMTA AND PSOU (THE BLACK SEA)
Yaroslavtsev N.A., Safyanov G.A., Petrov V.A.
Annotation. Based on topobatimetric surveys of the coastal strip of the Imeretin lowland, carried out from 1975 to 2016, as well as published data, the analysis of the beach contour and the width of the pebble beach within the interfluve between Mzymta and Psou is analyzed.
The influence of the anthropogenic factor, which manifested itself both in the selection of sediments from the beaches and the riverbed of the river Mzymta, which is the main supplier of beach-forming material ashore, and in construction within the coastal zone of various structures is shown.
The main negative impact on the condition of the beaches was the construction near the mouth of the river Mzymta of the port of Sochi – Imeretinsky, the protective moles of which completely interrupted the alongshore current of beach-forming sediments directed to the south-east to the mouth of the Psou River. A significant impact on the decrease in the width of the beach on the stretch of coast east of the port was provided by the construction in 2009 – 2013 of the embankment and wave-extinguishing structures with a stubborn belt located almost in the middle of the previously existing pebble beach. Dumping of gravel material both on the beach, left before the stubborn belt, and on the underwater slope, proved to be ineffective, due to the withdrawal of sediments under the influence of waves along the coast and into the underwater canyons.
Flushing of the beaches before the erected bank protection structures, caused by the interrupted coastal molehills of the port along the coastal flow of sediments, led to water overflow during storms through the embankment parapet and partial flooding of the Olympic facilities, as well as to the destruction of the most bank-protecting structure. These consequences required additional measures to protect not only the coast, but also the coast protection structures themselves, which were realized in the construction of wave breaking stone berms.
By the beginning of 2017, there is no beach on the stretch of 810 m along the stone berme erected at the steep belt, and the boundary of its erosion spread to 1260 m from the port and reached the top of the Konstantinovsky cape. Beyond the cape and further to the east, the pebble beach is still preserved and its width changes, increasing as it approaches the mouth of the Psou River.

Key words. Accumulation, coast protecting structure, coastal stream sediments, underwater canyon, sediments, tributary, beach, material forming the beach, erosion, sediment load,width of  beach.

New ideas, approaches
A FEEDBACK IS INHERENT IN THE ALL PROCESSES, WITHOUT EXCEPTION
Sanochkin V. V.
Abstract. On the basis of the feedback definition it is proved that the feedbacks operate in all processes, without exception. Also it is shown that a neutral feedback is the necessary alternative to the positive and negative feedbacks. The neutral feedback maintains a neutral equilibrium and additivity over the time of the controlled parameters. In the case of movement of the material objects a neutral feedback provides action of the law of momentum conservation.

Keywords: system, process, feedback, classification.

CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS OF SYSTEMS, SUBSYSTEMS AND THEIR ELEMENTS
Startsev V.V.
Abstract. Relation between the elements of the system has been studied. To determine the minimum level of the hierarchy of the system. Refined definitions of the basic terms of systemology are presented.

Key words. Systems, subsystems, elements, systemology, quantum mechanics.

The Complex systems no. 1 (26) 2017

Basic researches
STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE PROCESS OF EVOLUTION OF SOCIETY: FROM HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURES TO NETWORK ONES
Kurkina E.S., Knyazeva H.N.
Abstract. Evolution of society from the standpoint of formation and development of various types of structural relationships (hierarchical, market and network ones) is considered in the article. To describe all the variety of structural is simply not conceivable, but it is very useful to study them using concepts such as equality or inequality, freedom or compulsion, partnership or submission, independence or cooperation, stability or instability, mobility, adaptability, etc. Such a conceptual analysis provides us with a deeper understanding of the evolution of society and the historical moment we are experiencing now.

Key words: social evolution, blow-up regime, hierarchical structures, market structures, network structures, networks, complexity, demographic transition, network revolution.

COSMIC IMPACTS ON THE EARTH AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ARCTIC
Smulsky J.J.
Abstract. The influence of space on the Earth is systematized. Atmospheric circulation, cyclones and anticyclones are caused by the spherical shape of the Earth and its rotation. The Sun creates orbital motion of the Earth and irradiates it, and the streams of its substance create variations in weather and climate. The Moon, together with the Sun, creates tidal phenomena in the atmosphere and the ocean, variations in the obliquity of the Earth's axis, and climate fluctuations with tens thousands years periods. The evolution of the Earth’s orbit is occurred under planets impact. Due to the influence of the planets, the Sun revolves around the center of mass of the Solar system, as a result, there are variations in the solar corpuscular radiation that create variations in weather and climate. The variations of the Sun's insolation of the Earth, including polar days and nights in the modern era, as well as in the cold and warm epochs, are considered in more detail.

Key words: Space, impact, Earth, cyclones, anticyclones, weather, climate, polar days and nights.

New ideas, approaches
FORMATION OF 1/137 INVARIANT DURING EVOLUTION OF NON-SPECIFIC COMPLEX STRUCTURE
Smirnov V.L.
Abstract. The key idea of the paper is to assert that the 1/137 ratio known from physical experiments as a fine-structure constant results from the evolution of a range components characteristic for complex structures of various natures. The structure here is understood as the aggregate of relations represented on the number axis and capable of evolution, i.e. stage-by-stage deployment. The paper considers an evolutionary branch of the previously proposed proto-structure - a cyclic and primal system of relations where specifics of natural objects is eliminated. It is shown that interaction of certain allowed states causes them to split and shift forming a specific order variant. The result corresponds to a symmetrical plan where the bases, i.e. positions on the number axis define the splittances and at the same time the bases define the splittances. The 1/137 ration is one of the characteristics of the structural configuration obtained. Invariant formation is traced starting from the golden section. An analytical expression is given which does not deviate from the measured fine structure constant within 2 * 10-6%. It is suggested that the obtained invariant characterizes the prehistory and represents the initial position of the ratio that is known now.

Keyword: complex systems, fine-structure constant, evolution, self-organization, golden ratio.

EVOLUTION OF TWO ELEMENTS OF ALLOWED STATES RANGE IN NON-SPECIFIC COMPLEX SYSTEM
Smirnov V.L.
Abstract. The paper analyzes changes that occur in the allowed states of a complex self-organized system if its cyclic organization ceases existence. The range of such allowed states is generated by the proto-structure, i.e. a cyclic system of relations primal for objects of various natures. It is shown on the number axis and reflects stage-by-stage evolution of the system. In particular, the proto-structure forms the order parameter that is hierarchically the most important characteristic of the system. The analyzed range is represented by two elements that were split at the previous evolution stage and are liked by some set of rules. The paper considers scenarios guiding how previous range positions are transformed into new ones. The key idea is to keep the form of the existing rules while changing their content. Consistent compliance with the rules leads to the formation of a sub-system in the form of a satellite near an element of the range. All positions obtained represent the order parameter of the system. The satellite is included in the system using scaling factors. The paper applies the model to analyze evolution of two elements on the ecliptic plane of the Solar system where the relative angular momentum acts as the order parameter. The formation of space-time characteristics of Venus, Earth and the Moon are considered. The model corresponds to the observed data in the range of about 0.1%.

Keywords: order parameter, self-organization, evolution, Moon, Venus, Earth.

Experiments, opening, practice
CLIMATE CHANGE AND VARIATIONS OF THE TOTAL DURATION OF SEDENTARY ANTICYCLONS OVER EUROPEAN TERRITORY OF RUSSIA, BY THE SUMMER, (AT 1899-2016 YEARS).
Kholoptsev A.V.
Abstract. The values of the total duration of the existence of anticyclones, which in summer are formed over different regions of Russia located on its European Territory were estimated  for the period 1899-2016, using the approach to the typification of macrocirculatory processes in the Northern Hemisphere, which  proposed by B.L. Dzerdzeevsky.
The changes in this period of the statistical connection`s strength of the variations of this indicator that correspond to each of these regions, with changes in such characteristics of the climate of the hemisphere, as the average temperature of its surface, as well as the indices of the Atlantic multi-decadal oscillations and the Pacific decadal oscillations have been studied. The connections, which identified, have statistical stability to the time shifts of the simulated process and its predictors, which allows them to be effectively used in problems of modeling the changes of the characteristics considered and their prediction was established.

Key words: Anticyclone, elementary circulation mechanism, regions of Russia, links, total duration, climatic indices.

The Complex systems no. 3 (24) 2017

Basic researches
CYTOARCHITECTONICS SPEECH-MOTOR CORTEX ZONE OF
GIFTED SCIENTIST-INVENTOR
Bogolepova I.N., Malofeeva L.I. , Agapov P.A.
Abstract. On the series of frontal total cuts of 20 μm thick, colored with crosyl violet by the Nissl method, cytoarchitectonics of the cerebral cortex 44 of the motor-speech zone of the brain of the world famous scientist-inventor and brain of men of the corresponding age (10 hemispheres) was studied. Modern morphometric methods have been studied: the thickness of the cortex area 44, the area of the profile field of pyramidal neurons of the associative layer III, the density of nerve cells and glia in it, and the neuronal composition of this layer is determined.
As a result of the study, it was established that the area 44 of the speech motor zone of the cerebral cortex of a gifted scientist-inventor, compared with ordinary men of the corresponding age, is characterized by a statistically significantly larger cortex area 44, more large pyramidal neurons in cytoarchitectonic layer III, greater percentage of large neurons, more dense location of neurons and glia.

Key words: brain, talented, scientist, men, cytoarchitectonics, cortex, motor-speech zone, area 44, density, neuron, glia.

PHYSICAL INTERACTIONS AND HYPOTHESIS OF FRIEDMONS 
Polishchuk R.F.
Abstract. The notion of the dimensionless gravitational charge of any mass is given. Decay of the gravitation constant on 41 order gives the growing of the curvature radius on 41 order of the de Sitter vacuum from  to  and change of vacuum density from the Planckian value to the critical one. Hypothesis of friedmons as dark matter particles is proposed. Friedmons are stable particles with mass as billion masses of nucleons.
This work is made in frame of the Program of the Russian Academy of Sciences P7 “The experimental  and theoretical investigations of the Solar system objects and the planetary star systems. Transient and explosive processes in the astrophysics”.

Key words: dual symmetries, dark matter, friedmons, dissociation of vacuum.

New ideas, approaches
STRUCTURE OF ATOMS OF CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AS
CONSEQUENCE OF THE EQUATIONS OF THE COMPRESSIBLE ETHER
Magnitskii N.A.
Abstract. In the work, proceeding from the equations of compressible oscillating ether, deduced from laws of classical mechanics, ethereal mathematical models of nucleus and atoms of chemical elements of the first and second periods of the Mendeleyev’s periodic table, including nucleus of many isotopes are constructed. The formulas for their internal energies, masses, magnetic moments and binding energies are derived, the numerical values of which coincide, with an accuracy of tenths of a percent, with the "anomalous" values, which are in no way understandable from the point of view of modern physical science. In the absence of relativistic effects and the orbital motion of electrons in the ether model, formulas were obtained for calculating the radii of atoms, and the physical and chemical essence of the periodic law was clarified.

Key words: ether equations, atom, atomic nucleus, binding energy, ionization energy, magnetic moment, atom radius, degree of oxidation, periodic law.

THE ACCELERATION OF EVOLUTION CAUSED BY A DECREASE OF DISSIPATION
Kovalev V.A., Kovalev I.V.
Abstract. Accelerated scenarios (super exponential, with a decrease of temporary scale) the evolution of the system investigated on the basis of the decision of nonlinear differential equation.
A two − step scenario allows to explain the behavior of natural, technological and social systems.

Key words: nonlinear equation, the source, dissipation, instability, two-stage evolution, blow-up regime, singularity, alternative, solar flare, potential, management.

Debatable aspects
SYSTEM psycho-physiology and psycho-physiological problem
Bogatykh B.A.
Abstract. Key questions of system psychophysiology in the solution of a psychophysiological problem (interconditionality of the corporal and mental person and animals) within a synergetic (post-nonclassical) stage of knowledge, the concept of fractals, fractality of the channels which nature will be answered by Plykin's strange (fractal) attractor are considered. It is supposed that through its nature will be implemented the mental processes reflecting a complete organism and its behavioural acts, both whole, and the neurophysiological processes which are carried out at the level of separate elements, actually comparable through information system processes.

Key words: system psycho-physiology; psycho-physiological problem; fractal geometry; fractal channels; strange attractors.

The Complex systems no. 2 (23) 2017

Basic researches
DETAILED CRITERIA IN A COMPLEX SELF-ORGANIZING STRUCTURE
Smirnov V.L.
Abstract. The paper considers the formation of positions in a section of the number axis which, with proper interpretation, enables to discuss the space-time structure of the inner sun on the ecliptic plane. The section has its boundaries and is filled with nodes, i.e. the allowed states formed in the evolution of the proto-structure being a cyclic system of relations, which, presumably, is common for objects of different nature. As its integral part, it comprises a criterion, i.e. a group of nodes repeating in cycles and filling the number axis. Within the study area criterion acts on itself: with its participation in the blank axis intervals, which are located between the test sites, new authorized status. Within the section under consideration, the criterion is acting on its own: it affects formation of new allowed states in the empty axis intervals between the criterion nodes. The set of nodes obtained is regarded as a spectrum of the system’s order parameter. When applied, the relative angular momentum in the Solar system is treated as its order parameter; it specifies the distances and rotation periods for the layers. The peculiarity of the proposed model of the inner Sun is a stratified rapidly rotating nucleus located just below the surface. It is pierced with a system of significant holes yet also has areas where the distribution of the layers is nearly unbroken. The structural and physical data (except for Solar gravitational radius) match within ~ 1%.

Keywords: complex systems, evolutions, self-organization, order parameter, golden section, inner sun.

THE BASE OF THE EARTH BEING AND THE MAIN CIVILIZATIONS PROBLEMS
Nikitin E.D.
Abstract. It is demonstrated that one of the important reasons of acuteness of ecological problems on different levels is low involvement of achievements in pedology as fundamental interdisciplinary science with different applied sections in general eath science. Especially actual is teaching on global and biogeocenosis soil functions. Necessity of elaboration and introduction of integrated system of soil protection measures is provided. One of the central places in them is preservation and restoration of natural soils – ecological skeleton of geographical zones.

Key words: soil, civilization, pedology, nature protection, geobionoosphere, harmonizing development.

New ideas, approaches
MORPHODYNAMIC SYSTEM OF NOVYI SUBMARINE CANYON (BLACK SEA)
Yaroslavtsev N.A., Safyanov G.A., Petrov V.A.
Abstract. On the basis of repeated the bathymetric surveys is made the analysis of the morphodynamics of the erosive hollows which are forming system of a canyon New, including the central bed and two side western ravine tributaries. A condition of dynamics of pebbly beaches with the processes proceeding in upper courses of the central bed and the ravine tributary  of a canyon New which on lithodynamic communication with a coastal zone can be carried to the lateral type receiving deposits at their alongshore movement is shown. Grain size material can get to the central bed and ravine tributary only at storm in which depth of a collapse of waves is more than depth in their upper courses which repeatability is not considerable. The longitudinal erosive furrows which are trasses of movement towards the sea of the deposits getting to a canyon bed during storm are at the bottom widespread in an upper of the central bed. Accumulation of deposits in upper of a bed and the ravine tributary of a canyon leads to promotion of a brow of a slope of depths in the sea, to increase in the steepness of her sea edge and at achievement of critical value of a bias, to the shift of the collected material down thalwegs on more low levels under the influence of waves and a gravitational factor. After that again the sedimentation phase in upper courses of erosive hollows begins. Speed of accumulation of deposits in the central bed and side ravine tributary in many respects depends on the intensity of their alongshore movement caused by storm activity of the sea, and remoteness of upper courses of a canyon from the coast.

Keywords: Accumulation, brow stall depths, coastal stream sediments, underwater canyon tributaries, ravine tributary, erosion, sediment load, the thalweg, the mouth of the river.

The Complex systems no. 1 (22) 2017

Basic researches
TWO STRATEGIES OF INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT
Golichenkov V.A., Vsevolodov E.B., Burlakova O.V., Doronin Yu.K.
Abstract.  Two ways of individual development were defined as regulative and mosaic. The first one is supposed to arise on the base of palintomic divisions of maternal single cell while the second one is supposed to be based on the cellularization of polynuclear complicated cell of some advanced protozoa. The increase of complexity in the first way arises in the course of early development as cells number grows up and reaches “critical mass” providing the cell relations diversity and generating differential nuclear activity. In the second way of development some parts of maternal cell cytoplasm are specialized before the time when the similar nuclei progeny of zygote nucleus penetrate into them. So both ways of multicellularity creation lead to differentiation cytologically homological specialized cells of multicellular organism. The mosaic way is evolutionally correlated with organism’s miniaturization, organism building by less cells number, increased speed of physiologic reactions, and essential contribution of cell dimensions to body dimentions. Regulative way leads in the course of evolution to gigantism, to increased dimension of the organism achieved by higher number of approximally usual size cells, to more retarded physiological processes, to more prolonged ontogenesis and appearing of noticeable postreproductive period (senescence). Such polarized ways of ontogenesis organization do not exist in pure state but basing on the universal cellular mechanisms and being present in different proportion at the different stages secure all the diversity of individual development variants met in the nature.

Key words: ontogenesis, mozaicism, regulative development, cell, evolution.

THE CHANGING OF ICE COVER AT WINTER AND VARIATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE FIELD IN ARCTIC
Kholoptsev A.V., Kononova N.K.
Abstract. The areas  of different sectors of the Arctic, where the changing of its ice cover at winter months , and interannual variations of total duration  periods elementary circulation mechanisms, that are blocking in other sectors of the Northern Hemisphere, are interconnected significantly and statistically sustained,  is identified.

Key words: Arctic, ice cover, teleconnections, Arctic bloking, elementary circulation mechanisms, repeatability, teleconnections, synoptic situation, Arctic anticyclone.

New ideas, approaches
CUMULATIVE QUANTUM MECHANICS OF COMPLEX HOLLOW POLARIZING QUANTUM SYSTEMS.
PART I. GENERALIZED METHOD OF MATHEMATICS TRANSFER.
Vysikaylo Ph.I.
Abstract. The review deals with the description of a complex synergistic behavior of the polarized or the space charge of nanoparticles and the methods to manipulate them, as well as the problems of the integration of nanoparticles in different systems and the effective functioning of such systems in new nanostructured composite materials with a number of new properties due to quantum size effects, previously opened by the author. In the first part the author is made a historical overview of the development of quantum mechanics and its mathematical models and spectroscopy as the main base of the experimental evidence, and stimulating the development of quantum mechanics. We have identified a number of problems between the de Broglie’s hypothesis and the Dirac’s classical quantum mechanics, limiting the ψ-function everywhere. The author decided to these problems with the help of the cumulative quantum mechanics and the geometric regularization of the unlimited ψn-½-functions. Based on the review of a number of classical works we have formulated the basis of the method of generalized mathematical transposition (MGMT), we have discussed the new discoveries and the new results due to the use of this method.

Keywords: nanophysics, nanochemistry and nanomathematics, nanostructured composite materials, the cumulative quantum mechanics, the method of generalized mathematical transposition.

Experiments, opening, practice
INSTABILITIES IN THE ALLOWED STATE SPECTRUM OF A SELF-ORGANIZED SYSTEM. PART I
Smirnov V.L.
Abstract. The paper suggests a single scheme for position interaction on the number axis, which can be applied to explain the formation of the epochs of maximum and minimum within an 11-year cycle of solar activity. The analysis is based on the frameword of the complex formed through the interaction of two proto-structure cycles is analyzed. The proto-structure is understood as a system of relations common for objects of various nature. The framework comprises steady parts and parts on which various kinds of instability are formed. The paper analyzes a variant of instability which is understood as the basic one. Certain positions obtained are interpreted as a spectrum of allowed states for the system order parameter; other items act as centers of symmetry. When applied, the order parameter is regarded as a relative angular momentum. The scheme allows us to consider details of the evolution of the space-time structure of a hidden 11-year solar activity cycle. The model results are consistent with the observational data within the average limit of 1.4%. The meanings of Wolf numbers are discussed.

Keywords: self organization, instability, order parameter, evolution, solar activity cycles, epoch of maximum, epoch of minimum.

INSTABILITIES IN THE ALLOWED STATE SPECTRUM OF A SELF-ORGANIZED SYSTEM. PART II.
Smirnov V.L.
Abstract. The paper suggests a single scheme for position interaction on the number axis, which can be applied to explain the formation of long solar cycles (up to ~ 390 thousand years) and the asteroid belt the Solar System. The framework of a complex formed through the interaction of two proto-structure cycles is analyzed. The proto-structure is understood as a system of relations common for objects of various nature. The framework comprises steady parts and parts on which various kinds of instability are formed. Variants of instability in different parts of the framework are considered. Certain positions obtained are interpreted as a spectrum of allowed states for the system order parameter; other items act as centers of symmetry. When applied, the order parameter is regarded as a relative angular momentum, allowing us to discuss the space-time structure of the above-mentioned parts of the Solar System in the ecliptic plane. The model results are consistent with the observations in the range of 1-4%.

Keywords: self-organization, complex systems, order parameter, evolution, solar activity cycles, asteroid belt.